8.1. Rechargeable battery
On the car the lead rechargeable battery 6ST-60-EM is installed. The rated voltage of the battery is 12 V, capacity at the 20-hour mode of category 60 A · h.
Fig. 7.10. Accumulator battery: 1 – wipe-tsatelnaya a plate; 2 – separator; 3 – positive plate; 4 – safety grid; 5 – shoe; 6 – probe; 7 – monoblock; 8 – sealing mastic; 9 – positive conclusion;
10 – stopper of a bulk opening; 11 – interelement crossing point; 12 – cover; 13 – negative conclusion
The device of the rechargeable battery is shown in fig. 7.10.
In use periodically examine the rechargeable battery, support it in the loaded state and purity.
If at external examination of the battery dribble of electrolyte through cracks in case walls, in covers or in filling mastic is revealed, then the battery has to be removed from the car and is sent to repair.
You make cleaning of the battery of pollution, oxides and electrolyte the rags moistened in 10% solution of liquid ammonia or the calcinated soda. Grease tips of wires after cleaning with a thin layer of technical vaseline or oil for the engine and densely fix on output probes of the battery.
Level of electrolyte has to be 10-15 mm higher than plates.
Lowering of the level of electrolyte during operation usually happens due to water evaporation therefore for replenishment of electrolyte add the distilled water in the rechargeable battery. Use of tap water is forbidden as in it there are impurity (chlorine, iron, etc.) which destroy the battery.
Check electrolyte density in each element of the battery by means of the areometer (fig. 7.11).
By means of a pear gather in the glass cylinder electrolyte from an element. The areometer will emerge, at the same time density of electrolyte will correspond to that division of a scale of the areometer near which there is liquid level.
On the new cars shipped from the plant rechargeable batteries with a density of electrolyte identical at all seasons of the year, equal 1,27 g/cm3 are installed. Depending on climatic zone in which the car is operated bring density of electrolyte to the values given in tab. 7.1.
If temperature of electrolyte is higher or below 15 °C, then make the relevant amendment to the indication of the areometer, using these tab. 7.2. You make bringing density of electrolyte to the size recommended in tab. 7.3, and alignment of density of electrolyte in elements (if the electrolyte density difference in different elements exceeds 0,01 g/cm3) a dolivka of electrolyte with a density of 1,4 g/cm3 or the distilled water. Electrolyte with a density of 1,4 g/cm3 can be added only if the battery is completely charged and density of electrolyte remains invariable; in this case owing to "boiling" of electrolyte bystry and its reliable hashing is provided. The period between doliva of electrolyte or the distilled water has to be not less than 30 min.
Do not measure electrolyte density at once after a doliv in the accumulator of water or after launch of the engine by a starter; in these cases subject the battery to short charging small current or let's it stand 1–2 hours (without charging) in order that electrolyte density in all elements became identical.
Density of electrolyte allows to define degree of state of charge of the battery (tab. 7.1).
Put the battery discharged more than for 25% in the winter and more than for 50% in the summer on charging.
Check degree of state of charge and serviceability of the battery a load fork, as shown in fig. 7.12, or the device for check of rechargeable batteries of the E-401 model. Two resistance of 0,018-0,020 Ohms and 0,010-0,012 Ohms allow to create various loadings depending on the nominal capacity of the checked battery. For check of the rechargeable battery with a capacity of 60 And · h resistance of 0,018 - 0,020 Ohms creating loading 100 A joins.
Check of a condition of the rechargeable battery under loading current of big force allows to reveal not only suitability of the battery, but also with a sufficient accuracy degree of its state of charge. Dependence of power failure of the battery on degree of its state of charge is given in the passport attached to a load fork.
Definition of a condition of the rechargeable battery by results of check by its load fork:
1. If tension of each element of the battery during 5 with remains invariable and makes 1,7-1,8 B, then the battery is serviceable and completely charged.
2. If tension of all elements of the battery is identical and during 5 with remains to constants and is equal 1,4-1,7 B, then the battery demands charging.
3. If tension of all elements is identical and equal 0,4-1,4 B, then the battery is faulty.
4. If tension in batteries a miscellaneous also differs on 0,2 B or during 5 with falls to 0,4-1,4 B, then the battery demands charging or repair.
For convenience of use of a load fork the scale of the voltmeter is divided into color zones: green – the accumulator in good shape, yellow – the accumulator demands charging and red – the accumulator demands repair.