5.2. Naves, wheels and tires

POSSIBLE MALFUNCTIONS OF WHEELS AND TIRES, THEIR REASONS AND METHODS OF ELIMINATION



Fig. 3.98. Rotary fist: and – an alarm flute; – the index; I – right rotary fist; II – the left rotary fist; III – the coupling of shutdown of wheels; IV – the coupling of shutdown of wheels (alternative execution); in – wheels are disconnected; – wheels are included; 1 – lever of a rotary fist; 2 – half shaft casing;
3 – epiploon; 4,20 – laying; 5 – spherical support; 6 – case of a rotary fist; 7 – basic washer; 8 – slip; 9 – pivot axle; 10 – press butterdish;
11 – lock pin; 12 – pin; 13 – wheel nave; 14 – leading flange; 15 – coupling; 16 – coupling bolt; 17 – clamp ball; 18 – protective cap;
19 – plug шкворня; 21 – internal holder; 22 – ring partition;
23 – external holder; 24 – rubber sealing ring; 25 – felt sealing ring; 26 – persistent washers; 27 – turn restriction bolt; 28 – emphasis limiter of turn of a wheel; 29 – ring; 30 – leading shchlitsevy plug; 31 – connecting shlitsevy plug; 32 – leading plug; 33 – cap; 34 – cover; 35 – cuff; 36 – pin; 37 – switch;
38 – ball; 39, 41 – springs; 40 – laying; 42 – the conducted plug; 43 – rastyazhny spring; 44 – case; 45 – locking ring


Fig. 3.106. Zadny Bridge with the final drive: 1 – cover of a case of the main transfer; 2 – differential bearing; 3,13,49 – adjusting laying; 4 – sealing laying; 5,7 – bearings of the leading gear wheel; 6,15 – adjusting rings; 8,42 – cuffs; 9 – flange;
10 – nut; 11 – mud-reflector; 12 – ring; 14 – expansion plug;
16 – leading gear wheel of the main transfer; 17 – satellite; 18 – right half shaft; 19 – case of onboard transfer; 20,29 – maslootrazhatel; 21 – half shaft bearing; 22,26,40 – lock rings; 23 – sealing laying of a case of onboard transfer; 24 – cover of a case of onboard transfer; 25 – bearing; 27 – brake board; 28 – brake drum; 30 – bolt of fastening of a wheel; 31 – pin; 32 – hug bearing; 33,41 – laying; 34 – key washer; 35 – leading flange; 36 – nut of hug bearings; 37 – lock washer; 38 – plug; 39 – the conducted shaft of onboard transfer; 43 – the bearing of the conducted shaft; 44 – the conducted gear wheel of onboard transfer; 45 – special nut; 46,50 – traffic jams of drain openings;
47 – leading gear wheel of onboard transfer; 48 – right cup of a box of satellites; 51 – case of the main transfer; 52 – half shaft gear wheel washer;
53 – half shaft gear wheel; 54 – axis of satellites; 55 – the conducted gear wheel of the main transfer; 56 – left cup of a box of satellites; 57 – left half shaft


Fig. 4.8. Nave of a back wheel: 1 – nave; 2 – bearing; 3 – laying; 4 – pin;
5 – half shaft; 6 – lock-nut; 7 – key washer; 8 – cuff; 9 – wheel; 10 – brake drum


Naves of forward and back wheels (see fig. 3.98 and 4.8) all cars, except cars with bridges with the final drive, identical. Flanges of naves of cars with bridges with the final drive (see fig. 3.106) are displaced inside on 16,5 mm concerning their external end face and have 10 (instead of 8) carving openings for bolts of fastening of the leading flanges.
Wheels of cars – disk, stamped, with a deep one-piece rim of dimension 6LX15 or 6JX16 depending on the used tires.
Tires of cars – pneumatic, chamber diagonal (15") or radial (15" or 16").

Fig. 4.9. Fastening of a spare wheel of cars of family UAZ-31512: 1 – lock of a folding arm; 2 – folding arm;
3 – bolt; 4 – clamping washer; 5 – motionless loop; 6 – axis of a folding arm; 7,8 – buffers; 9 – support


Fig. 4.10. Fastening of a spare wheel: And – cars UAZ-3741, UAZ-3962, UAZ-2206, UAZ – 3909; B – cars UAZ-3303, UAZ-33036, UAZ-39094, UAZ-39095; 1 – spare wheel;
2 – sector; 3 – holder; 4 – nut; 5 – bolt;
6 – washer; 7 – arm


Fastening of a spare wheel on cars is shown in fig. 4.9 and 4.10.

Maintenance
Periodically check and if necessary adjust bearings of naves of wheels. Check existence of a gap in bearings rocking of the hung-out wheel. Pay special attention to correctness of adjustment of bearings of naves of wheels of the new car.
Periodically check and tighten fastenings of flanges of half shafts and leading flanges of naves.
Systematically change lubricant in naves of wheels according to the table of greasing. For replacement of lubricant remove a nave from a pin, remove old lubricant and carefully wash out kerosene bearings and an internal cavity of a nave. The lubricant layer in a nave between bearings has to be 10-15 mm thick. Do not put in a nave lubricant more norm in order to avoid hit it in the wheel brake mechanism.
When washing and replacing lubricant do not remove a cuff in order to avoid its damage and violation of consolidation. Press off a cuff only at strong pollution of lubricant and replacement of hug bearings.
Periodically examine wheels and check an inhaling of nuts of fastening of wheels. The moment of an inhaling of nuts of 98-118 N · m (10–12 kgfs · м). For a uniform inhaling wrap nuts through one. For the prevention of jamming of nuts grease their every time at removal of a wheel. At failure detection of a wheel repair it or replace.
Use tires with the "universal" or all-weather drawing of a protector. At operation of cars on dirt roads use tires with the drawing of a protector of the increased passability.
Periodically check a condition of tires and pressure of air in them, and also as required rearrange tires and balance wheels with tires assembled. Check pressure on cold tires. If necessary bring it to norm.
You watch that wear of a protector of tires did not exceed extreme size (to wear indicators, and at their absence to 1,6 mm of residual depth of the drawing of a protector).

Fig. 4.11. Scheme of shift of wheels


At uneven wear of a protector rearrange tires in the sequence shown in fig. 4.11.
At shift of diagonal tires use the spare tire if its wear does not differ from wear of other tires.
Shift of radial tires has to be on onboard – forward and back wheels on one board are interchanged the position. The spare wheel does not participate in the scheme of shift.
At intensive uneven wear of forward tires check and if necessary adjust a convergence of wheels which has to be 1,5–3 mm.
The order of adjustment is specified in the section "Peredny Bridge".
At emergence of "spotty" wear of tires or the increased return check for a steering wheel and if necessary make static or dynamic balancing of wheels with tires assembled. Balancing of wheels is recommended to be made also preventively along with shift of tires for the purpose of the prevention of the increased wear of tires and details of steering.
Preventive balancing of wheels on cars of family UAZ-31512 is especially necessary.

Balancing of wheels with tires assembled
Before balancing the wheel needs to be cleared of dirt. For simplification of installation of a spring of a balancing small weight pressure in the tire is recommended to be reduced to 50 kPa (0,5 kgfs/cm2).
The wheel imbalance assembled with the tire should not be more than 1600 · cm (40 g on the zakrayena of a rim from each party).
Dynamic balancing of wheels is made on the special machine.
In the absence of an opportunity to carry out full dynamic balancing it is possible to carry out static balancing on adaptation imitating rotation of a wheel on a nave on which it is necessary to provide the greatest ease of rotation.
Wheels are balanced by means of the special small weights and springs established on a rim flange.
Balancing on adaptation is made as follows:
1. Bring a wheel into rotation. After a stop of a wheel put with chalk a tag on its top (easy) part.
2. Repeat operation, rotating a wheel in the opposite direction, and put the second tag on the top part.
3. Halve distance between tags and make the third (average) tag which will define the easy place of a wheel.
4. Establish one or several small weights near the third (average) tag for a full equilibration of a wheel. If the mass of small weights precisely does not manage to be picked up, then instead of originally established small weights on both sides from a tag put even number of in pairs identical small weights which total mass exceeds necessary a little, and then, moving apart them on equal distances from an easy point of a wheel, achieve indifferent balance.
5. Divide whenever possible equally the picked-up small weights on weight and establish on both sides of a wheel opposite to each other.

Adjustment of bearings of naves of wheels
Carry out adjustment of bearings carefully. At a weak inhaling of bearings in them during the movement there are blows destroying bearings. At too hard inhaling there is a strong heating of bearings owing to what lubricant follows and bearings fail.
You make adjustment of bearings in the following order:
1. Lift a jack a wheel which bearings need to be adjusted.
2. Take out a half shaft of the back bridge (or the leading flange of a nave with the coupling of shutdown of a wheel of the forward bridge). For this purpose wrap two bolts strippers.
3. Unbend a mustache of a lock washer, turn off a lock-nut, remove a lock washer.
4. Turn off a nut of adjustment of bearings on 1/6–1/3 turns (1–2 sides).
5. Turning a hand a wheel, check ease of its rotation. In case of hard rotation remove the cause of braking (for example, a drum zadevaniye for brake shoes, jamming of cuffs etc.).

Fig. 4.12. Adjustment of wheel bearings


6. Tighten a nut of adjustment of hug bearings by means of a key (fig. 4.12) and a neck 300-350 mm long by effort of one hand before hard rotation of a wheel. When tightening a nut press a key neck smoothly, without breakthroughs and turn a wheel for the correct placement of rollers on racetracks of rings of bearings.

Fig. 4.13. Adjustment of wheel bearings


7. Turn off a nut on 1/4–1/3 turns (1,5–2 sides), establish a lock washer. Tighten a lock-nut and stop both nuts, bending washer moustaches on the verge of a nut and a lock-nut (fig. 4.13).
8. Check adjustment of bearings after a lock-nut inhaling. At the correct adjustment the wheel has to rotate freely, without jammings, a noticeable axial gap and rolling.
9. Establish into place a half shaft of the back bridge (or the leading flange and the coupling of shutdown of wheels of the forward bridge), establish bolts with spring washers and tighten. Moment of an inhaling of 60-70 N · m (6–7 kgfs · м).
Check correctness of adjustment of bearings on heating of a nave of a wheel at the movement. If the nave heats up strongly, turn off a nut on 1/6 turns (1 side), following the sequence and rules stated above.
When checking adjustment of bearings on heating of naves do not use working brake mechanisms as in this case naves heat up from brake drums.

Repair
At emergence on naves, wheels of considerable wear, damages and other malfunctions remove them from the car, sort, check a condition of details and their suitability for further work.
Replace the worn-out and damaged details new or repair.
At repair of naves and the details interfaced to them use these tab. 4.1.
When dismantling naves pay attention to a condition of bearings, cuffs and their plugs. The bearings having spotty wear, a vykrashivaniye, the damaged fillets of internal rings or separators, replace.
Wheels should not have cracks, dents and curvature. At detection of dents and curvature correct them, and paint a surface. The radial beating of landing shelves and a face beating of an internal surface of boards of a rim of a wheel should not exceed 1,2 mm.
Replace the wheels having disks with the broken openings for fastening.
 Removal, dismantling and assembly of naves
You make removal of naves in the following order:
1. Remove a wheel from a nave (see the section "Removal of Wheels, Dismantling and Assembly of Tires").
2. Turn off bolts of fastening of a half shaft and remove a half shaft of the back bridge (a protective cap of a nave, the coupling of shutdown of wheels and the leading flange of the forward bridge).
3. Unbend a mustache of a lock washer, turn off a lock-nut and remove a lock washer.
4. Turn off a nut of adjustment of bearings and remove a persistent washer.
5. Remove from a pin a nave with the reel, bearings, a cuff and a persistent washer of a cuff.
For replacement of the worn-out or damaged bearings sort a nave in the following order:

Fig. 4.14. Vypressovka external ring of the internal hug bearing


1. Vypressuyte external ring of the internal bearing adaptation (fig. 4.14). Along with an external ring there will be a vypressovana a cuff with a persistent washer and an internal ring of this bearing. Carry out this operation carefully not to damage a cuff.

Fig. 4.15. Removal of a persistent ring of the wheel bearing


2. Remove a persistent ring of the internal bearing by means of nippers (fig. 4.15).
3. Shift an external ring of the external bearing against the stop in a nave ledge to release a persistent ring.
4. Remove a persistent ring of the external bearing by means of nippers.

Fig. 4.16. Vypressovka external ring of the external hug bearing


5. Vypressuyte external ring of the external bearing adaptation (fig. 4.16).
You make assembly of a nave upside-down taking into account the following:
1. When replacing bearings replace also external rings. Again established external rings of bearings of naves of wheels have to be densely pressed to the persistent rings, otherwise after adjustment of bearings the gap will appear.
You make the specified operation a hard inhaling of bearings nuts after installation of collected naves on a pin (before adjustment). Between a cuff and the internal bearing surely establish a persistent washer, otherwise at removal of a nave from a pin the cuff can be damaged. At assembly of a nave the cuff needs to be pressed against the stop in a persistent washer.

Fig. 4.17. Press fitting of a cuff and external rings of hug bearings


2. You make a press fitting of a cuff and external rings of bearings a ring mandrel (fig. 4.17).
3. Before installation of a nave on a pin put in bearings lubricant as directed of the table of greasing.
4. At assembly you remember that between the external bearing and a nut of adjustment of bearings thermally processed persistent washer is established. In the absence of a washer the adjusting nut can fail.
5. If on moustaches of a lock washer there are at least insignificant cracks, replace it, otherwise breakage of moustaches of a washer and a samootvorachivaniye (or a self-inhaling) nuts is possible that it will put bearings out of action.
6. After installation of a nave with a drum on a pin adjust an inhaling of bearings.
 Removal of wheels, dismantling and assembly of tires
You make removal of a wheel from the car in the following order:
1. Weaken nuts of fastening of wheels.
2. You will hang out a jack a wheel which is subject to replacement.
3. Turn off nuts of fastening of a wheel and remove a wheel from a nave.
You make installation of a wheel on a nave upside-down.
During the dismantling and assembly of tires observe the following:
– only the pure, serviceable, corresponding to the sizes and types tires, cameras and disks of wheels are subject to assembly;
– in new tires fill only new cameras;
– you make dismantling and assembly of tires in way with application of the special shovels which are available in a set of the driver's tool; in garage conditions – with use of the special equipment;
– you make dismantling and assembly of tires in the conditions excluding hit of sand and dirt on cameras and tires.
You make dismantling of the tire in the following order:
1. Let out completely the air from the camera, having turned out a gate zolotnik.

Fig. 4.18. Removal of an external board of a tire


2. Fill a part of a board of a tire (from outside, opposite to the gate) in deepening of a disk of a wheel, and then move with assembly shovels a tire board through a disk, having begun operation at the gate (fig. 4.18).
In case of sticking of a tire to a disk separate its boards by means of a jack, using, for example, the mass of the car.
For this purpose put a wheel under the car, establish a jack on a tire about a wheel disk (for an external board surely on the party opposite to the gate), having enclosed a board under the jack basis and begin raising of the car. After several musclemen of a neck of a jack the tire will easily lag behind a disk.
3. Push out the gate from an opening of a disk and take out the camera.

Fig. 4.19. Removal of an internal board of a pok-ryshka


4. Shift other board of a tire in deepening of a disk and, stuffing up shovels, as shown in fig. 4.19, remove a tire.
If dismantling of the tire is made only for replacement of the camera, remove from a disk only one board of a tire from the gate.
You make assembly of the tire in the following order:
1. Put a disk an opening for the camera gate up.
2. Powder a tire (inside) and the camera a thin layer of talc on all surface, remove surplus of talc.
For simplification of assembly grease a tire board with soap solution.

Fig. 4.20. Installation of the tire on a wheel: And – installation of an internal board of a tire; B – gas station of the camera in a tire; In – installation of an external board of a tire


3. Put a tire on a wheel so that serial number was from above. By means of assembly shovels establish an internal board of a tire (fig. 4.20, A) on a disk of a wheel and enter it into deepening of a disk.
4. Enter the camera gate into an opening of a disk and accurately fill the camera in a tire (fig. 4.20, B).
5. Pump up the camera so that it finished and reached the correct position on a disk, and then let out the air.
6. Having convinced that the lower board of a tire is in deepening of a disk, put on by means of assembly shovels an external board of a tire a disk (fig. 4.20, B). Begin gas station of an external board of a tire from outside, opposite to the gate, and continue in both parties, getting closer to him. At the same time you watch correctness of position of the gate in a disk opening, without allowing its distortion.
In process of putting on of a board shift the filled part of a tire in deepening of a disk.
7. Pump up the camera up to the normal pressure, then completely lower from it air and again pump up for providing correct (without folds) provisions of the camera in a tire.