3.5. System of cooling

The engine cooling system – liquid, closed, with compulsory circulation of cooling liquid the centrifugal pump. Supply of cooling liquid is made in a shirt of cooling of the block of cylinders.
As cooling liquid Lena OZh-40 liquid, TOSOL-A40M or water are applied nizkozamerzayushchaya.
At a temperature of surrounding air below minus 40 °C it is necessary to apply OZh-65 Lena, TOSOL-A65M.
For normal operation of the engine temperature of cooling liquid has to be maintained in limits of 70-90 °C. It is carried out by means of the thermostat which automatically regulates amount of the liquid passing through a radiator, and blinds which regulate amount of the air cooling a radiator.
In cold time the cooling system should be protected an insulating cover with the folding valve.
Temperature of cooling liquid is controlled by the index of temperature located on the panel of devices and connected electro-provodom to the thermal sensor screwed in the thermostat case.
Except that, about an overheat of cooling liquid the lamp with the light filter of red color established on a guard of devices and connected by electrical wire to the thermal sensor screwed in the top tank of a radiator signals.
The alarm lamp lights up at achievement by cooling liquid of temperature of 91-98 °C. Can be the reasons of an overheat: the lowered liquid level in a radiator, a weak tension of a belt of the fan, the movement with the closed blinds and the closed valve of an insulating cover. In case of fire of an alarm lamp it is necessary to establish and eliminate the overheat reason immediately.
The pump 421.1307010-01 – centrifugal type, is put in action by a wedge-shaped belt from a pulley of a bent shaft. In a design of the pump the shariko-roller bearing manufactured at the same time with a pump shaft is used. The bearing has special consolidations which provide preservation of the lubricant put at production. In use the bearing does not demand additional lubricant.
The thermostat – with a firm filler, is located in the case.
Operation of the engine without thermostat is inadmissible since during removal of the thermostat the main stream of liquid will circulate on a small circle of the cooling system, passing a radiator that will lead to an engine overheat.
At service of the cooling system of the engine of model 414 and model 4178 (till 1999 * release) it is necessary to consider their design features:

* By the end of 1999 it is planned to start completely the production engines of model 4178 with supply of cooling liquid in a shirt of cooling of the block of cylinders

– supply of cooling liquid is made in a head of the block of cylinders;
– in the pump (21-1307010-52) cooling systems are installed two ball bearings. Greasing of bearings you make as directed tables of greasing. Grease bearings through a press-butterdish to a lubricant exit from a control opening. Remove excess lubricant as it can get on a belt of the fan and bring him out of an operation;
– the sensor of control of temperature of cooling liquid is screwed in a cooling system pump cavity;
– the thermostat is installed in a final branch pipe.
Avoid hit of cooling liquid at removal of a head or for other reasons in oil as it causes osmoleny oils that can lead to coking up and loss of mobility of pushers, adjournment of pitches and overlapping of the small openings bringing lubricant to the rubbing surfaces.
Service of the cooling system consists from it a scum and rainfall, in adjustment of a tension of a belt of the fan at a distance, and also in about-myvke a radiator outside.
Every three years or each 60 000 km (depending on what will come earlier) wash out the cooling system, and replace cooling liquid new.
Wash out the cooling system the next way:
– fill system with clear water, launch the engine, let's it work before warming up, at the engine working idling merge water and kill the engine;
– after cooling of the engine repeat the operation stated above.

Fig. 2.11. Washing of the cooling system


At considerable adjournment of a scum and rainfall them from the cooling system you make removal washing with a pure strong stream. Wash out the engine separately from a radiator (fig. 2.11) that a rust, the scum and rainfall from a shirt of cooling of the engine did not litter a radiator. Before washing of the engine, in this case, take out the thermostat and disconnect hoses from a radiator.
For the best cleaning of a shirt of cooling of the block of cylinders turn out from the block of cylinders a drain faucet together with the union.
Wash out a cooling shirt till that time until the water which is going out of the engine is pure.
Do not use for washing of a ru-head of cooling with alkaline solutions as they cause corrosion of a head and the block of cylinders.
Wash out a radiator at the closed stopper, bringing water at first to top - to it to a branch pipe to remove in per-vy turn a deposit from the lower tank, and then to the lower branch pipe. Wash out till that time until the water which is coming out the top tank is pure.
At the same time wash out a stream of water and blow compressed air of sulfurs-dtsevinu of a radiator.
At considerable deposits of a scum in tubes of a radiator execute the following:
1. Remove a radiator from the car and fill in in it 10% the solution of caustic sodium (caustic soda) which is previously heated to temperature of 90 °C.
2. In 30 min. merge solution from a radiator.
3. Wash out a radiator hot water in the direction, the return circulation of cooling liquid in the engine (see rice. 2.11) within 30–40 minutes under a pressure no more than 49 kPa (0,5 kgfs/cm2).

Fig. 2.12. Check of a tension of a belt of the fan


Regulate a tension of a belt of the fan turn of the generator. Nor-malny the deflection of a belt has to be 8–14 mm when pressing it with effort about 4 kgfs (rice. 2.12).
Check operation of the thermostat at the same time with washing of the cooling system, and also in case of a systematic overheat of the engine (during the correct work of power supply systems and ignitions).
For check place the thermostat together with the thermometer in a vessel with the water heated to temperature of 90-100 °C. Then at gradual cooling of water you watch temperature of the beginning (80±2) °C and the end of closing (70±2) °C of the valve of the thermostat. Replace the faulty thermostat new.
When checking the thermostat turn attention to purity of a plate of the valve. Remove a scum and dirt from the surface of the thermostat with a wooden shovel, then wash out in water.
It is possible to check serviceability of the thermostat and on heating of a reception branch pipe of the top tank of a radiator at warming up of the engine. At the faulty thermostat a branch pipe about-grevayetsya at once after launch of the engine, at serviceable – after water temperature in the block reaches 60–70 °C (according to the index of temperature of cooling liquid on a guard of devices).
Check blinds for completeness of opening at the drive handle moved to the full. If shutters of blinds thus open not completely, then adjust them the next way:
1. Weaken the screw of fastening of draft of the drive in the hinged coupling of the lever located on blinds.
2. Open completely shutters of blinds, having turned the drive lever against an hour arrow.
3. Move to the full the handle at - water of blinds.
4. Enshrine in this provision draft of the drive in the hinged coupling of the lever.
5. In a row close several time and open blinds then about-verte full opening of shutters of blinds at the handle moved to the full and their full closing at the handle extended on itself. If thus the handle of the drive moves with big effort, grease axes of shutters of blinds and draft. Oil axes of shutters motor, and draft, previously having taken out it from a cover, – Litol-24 lubricant. Draft can be greased legkopronikayushchey with the lubricant consisting of 60% of a concentrate of colloid graphite in mineral oil and 40% of white spirit. You apply lubricant on a draft cover.

Fig. 2.13. Fan drive coupling:
1 – cover; 2 – case; 3 – shaft; 4 – drive plate; 5 – hairpin of fastening of the fan; 6 – bearing; 7 – compound; 8 – liquid polymethyl-siloksanovaya; 9 – perepuskny opening; 10 – valve; 11 – bimetallic spring


On engines of models 4218 and 4178 the viscous coupling of the drive of the fan (fig. 2.13) allowing to cut fuel consumption, to reduce noise of the fan, and also promoting warming up of the cold engine and maintenance of the thermal mode of the engine in optimum limits can be installed.
The external surface of the coupling should be kept clean for ensuring the heat removal which is allocated in the course of operation of the coupling, and normal work of a bimetallic spring of the valve. Inclusion and switching off of the coupling happens automatically.
If the coupling ceases to work, disconnect the coupling from a nave (connection of the coupling with a nave has the left carving), remove the fan, turn out two hairpins of fastening of the fan from the coupling case, merge working liquid through openings of hairpins and carefully wash out an internal cavity of the coupling gasoline. Let's gasoline flow down completely, then fill in in the coupling through one of openings 40 g of polimetilsiloksanovy TU 6-02-737-78 PMS-10000 liquid. The second opening has to be open for an air outlet. After that wrap hairpins in the case, fix the fan and install the coupling on a cooling system pump pulley nave.
Merge liquid from the cooling system of the engine through two faucets. One of them is located on the lower tank of a radiator, another – on the block of cylinders. At plum remove a radiator stopper.